Tampilkan posting dengan label musik daerah. Tampilkan semua posting
Tampilkan posting dengan label musik daerah. Tampilkan semua posting
Sejarah Musik Melayu

Sejarah Musik Melayu, Sejak kapan perhelatan perkawinan dimeriahkan hiburan? Paling sedikit di Batavia sejak menjelang akhir abad ke-18, begitulah laporan seorang pelancong Jawa bernama Sastrodarmo yang berkunjung ke Batavia pada zaman itu. Jenis hiburan pun dilaporkannya antara lain gambus dengan lagu-lagu Arab.

Gambus adalah musik yang dibawa peranakan Arab dari Hadramaut (Yaman). Perantau Arab ini menurut C.C. Berg memang ramai sekali berdatangan ke Hindia Belanda pada abad ke-18 dan menunjukkan eskalasi pada abad ke-19 .

Tentu saja sulit bagi kita untuk melacak grup gambus yang populer pada abad-abad tersebut. Catatan yang dapat dipertanggungjawabkan berasal dari era menjelang dan sesudah PD II. Berikut ini rangkuman percakapan KSK dengan seorang penyanyi lagu Melayu yang terkenal dengan lagunya Ya Mustafa yaitu Munif Bahaswan yang berlangsung di Jakarta. Sejarah Musik
Extra Melayu

Market gambus bukan hanya kalangan peranakan Arab, tetapi orang-orang non Arab pun banyak yang menyukai gambus. Mempertimbangkan selera market, menurut Munif, orkes gambus sering membawakan extra lagu Melayu, atau extra Melayu. Market di kalangan non Arab makin meluas, akhirnya pada tahun 1950 awak grup-grup gambus yang ada seperti Al Wardah, yang pada awalnya dipimpin Umar Hamada kemudian Muchtar Lutfi, mendirikan Orkes Melayu Moderen Sinar Medan di bawah pimpinan Umar Fauzi Aseran. Disebut orkes Melayu moderen karena menggunakan alat tiup (brass) seperti klarinet, saxophone, dan trompet. Kemudian hari disebut Orkes Melayu saja, yang sering disingkat OM.

Trend ini diikuti oleh awak gambus Al-Wathon pimpinan Hassan Alaydrus yang mendirikan OM Kenangan pimpinan Hussein Aidit. Sementara itu awak orkes gambus Surabaya Al Afan pimpinan A. Kadir, menurut Munif, mendirikan OM Sinar Kemala pimpinan A. Kadir juga. Menurut Munif, mantan Mendikbud Fuad Hassan pernah bermain biola untuk orkes gambus Al Afan. Dalam percakapan dengan penulis, Hassan Alaydrus juga memberikan kesaksian yang sama bahwa Fuad Hassan pernah bermain gambus. Namun kepada penulis Fuad Hassan mengatakan bahwa ia tak pernah bermain gambus melainkan ikut orchestra besar, mungkin semacam New York Philarmonic Orchestra. Sejarah Musik
Abdul Haris, M. Thahar, dan Hussein Bawafi adalah pengarang lagu Melayu generasi pertama. A. Haris terkenal dengan lagu Kudaku Lari. Lagu ini diilhami oleh back sound film Mesir Syaifi wal Qalbi yang dibintangi Abdul Wahab. Wahab adalah bintang film dan penyanyi Mesir yang amat digemari di Indonersia. Penyanyi Mesir perempuan yang nyaris menjadi mitologi "persatuan Arab"adalah Ummi Kalsum.

M. Thahar mengarang lagu Cinta Hampa. Lagu ini mencuat merobek cakrawala musik Melayu berkat suara yang gurih Hasnah Thahar, isteri M. Thahar. Bawafi muncul di zaman itu dengan lagunya Khayalan dan Penyair, tetapi lagunya yang mencuat adalah Seroja.

Lagu-lagu Melayu yang lahir di zaman ini meski pun mengalami up dating dibanding dengan lagu Melayu klasik yang ditulis oleh penggubah-penggubah N.N. (tak dikenal) seperti lagu Seringgit Dua Kupang yang kini didangdutkan menjadi Ayam Jago Jenggernya Merah, tetapi menurut Munif belum mencapai format lagu yang disebut songform. Struktur sebuah lagu yang disebut songform adalah terdiri atas 32 bar dengan bagian yang diulang (refrein) A1 + A2, klimaks (yang malah disebut refrein), dan kembali kepada A1 atau A2, atau malah muncul A3. A3 adalah syair yang bukan pengulangan dari bait-bait sebelum klimaks.

(Munif yang dikenal sebagai penyanyi yang serba bisa, ia pun mahir menyanyikan lagu jazz, dan untuk kurun waktu yang lama ia bersama Rudy Rusadi dan Dudung menjadi vocal-grup kelompok terkenal Los Morenos. Ketika tamat pendidikan dasar di Al-Irsyad, Batavia, Munif beroleh beasiswa dari Irak yang ketika itu dipimnpin oleh Raja Faisal).

Said Effendi nyaris meninju Iskandar

Penulis mengatakan kepada Munif bahwa ia adalah penyanyi Melayu legendaris, Munif mengelak seraya menyebut nama Effendi. Tentu tidak perlu digelar perdebatan, baiklah didengar argumentasi Munif.

Effendi adalah pelopor lagu Melayu dengan format songform, lagu ciptaannya itu dibawakan dengan suara soprano bercengkok. Dan tidak pula ia menempuh karirnya dengan jalan yang mudah. Kepada Munif, Effendi mengungkap riwayat hidupnya.

S. Effendi dilahirkan dengan nama Said Arrasyidi di Bondowoso sekitar tahun 1930. Pada sekitar tahun 1952 pemuda Said merantau ke Jakarta dan melamar di RRI Stodio Jakarta. Namun lelah menunggu lamaran tak kunjung berjawab. Maka Said mendapat pekerjaan, yang bersifat non seni, di Kalimantan. Pada suatu hari yang menerima surat dari familinya di Jakarta bahwa lamarannya bekerja di RRI diterima. Said meluncur ke Jakarta.

Ia kaget bukan kepalang ketika di latihan di studio RRI dengan iringan Orkes Studio Djakarta (OSD) pimpinan Josd Clebert ia disodorkan partitur. Said tidak mengenal not balok. Ia tahu not angka. Sal Salius, seorang penyanyi lagu seriosa, melihat bakat yang luar biasa yang dimiliki Said menjadi sukarelawan mengajarkan Said not balok. Dan Said dalam waktu cepat menguasainya. Ia mulai bernyanyi dan dikenal. Lalu ia melengkapi namanya menjadi Said Effendi. Nama family Arrasyidi tak dipakainya. Bahkan kemudian hari ia lebih suka memakai nama S. Effendi saja. Nama Effendi adalah sangat lazim digunakan dan amat disukai di kalangan masyarakat Mesir, apalagi setelah di bioskop Alhambra, Sawah Besar, diputar berbulan-bulan film Mesir Bul Bul Effendi.

Effendi mengarang lagu pertama berjudul Bachtera Laju. Dengan bersemangat ia memasuki kamar kerja komponis Iskandar, ayah penyanyi Diah Iskandar yang dijuluki Connie Francis Indonesia. Iskandar sedang bermain piano menerima naskah Effendi tanpa menoleh. Setelah menatap naskah itu beberapa menit kemudian naskah itu diremas dan dilemparkan ke keranjang sampah. Darah menggelegak di kepala Effendi. Ia meninggalkan ruangan Iskandar dan menuju kantin RRI dengan niat meninju Iskandar. Sesaat menunggu pikirannya berubah. Malah ia kembali ke ruang Iskandar yangh telah kosong dan memungut naskahnya yang lecek. Dibelainya naskah itu dan ia memasuki ruang komponis Ismail Marzuki.

"Waduh, ini lagu bagus benar, biar saya yang membuat arrangementnya, dan dua hari lagi kita latihan", kata Ismail Marzuki.

Dengan girang Effendi meninggalkan kamar Ismail Marzuki. Dan ia berpapasan dengan Iskandar yang wajahnya terlihat bingung.

"Ëffendi, mana naskah kamu tadi, aku cari-cari di keranjang sampah kok enggak ada"

"Memangnya kenapa?" Tanya Effendi.

"Lagu itu bagus, aku mau buat arrangementnya"

"Oh terlambat, Ismail yang mau membuat arrangementnya. Tapi, tadi 'kan kamu buang ke keranjang sampah naskah itu!"

"Aku 'kan cuma bercanda"

Bachtera Laju meroket sampai ke negara jiran. Setelah itu Effendi menulis puluhan lagu dengan standard songform. Lagunya bagus-bagus semua, apalagi ia yang menyanyikannya. Pada tahun 1980-an Effendi meninggal dunia. Namun namanya tetap dikenang. Dan anehnya, terutama di Malaysia. Seniman Malaysia acapkali mengadakan acara memperingati Effendi.

"Saya Indonesia"

Munif dan M. Mashabi adalah dua penyanyi tersohor yang nyaris muncul bersamaan di sekitar tahun 1955. Munif pandai mencipta lagu. Hingga saat ini ia telah mencipta sebanyak 75 lagu Melayu dan beberapa lagu Arab.

M. Mashabi, atau Mamat. Mashabi adalah nama famili, namanya sendiri Muhammad. Ia lahir dan dibesarkan di Kebon Kacang, Tanah-abang. Ciptaan Mashabi tidak banyak, mungkin tidak sampai 20 buah. Tetapi banyak ciptaannya yang ia nyanyikan sendiri yang tersohor misalnya Ratapan Anak Tiri yang sempat meledak dan menjadi tema film Ratapan Anak Tiri garapan Sandy Suwardi. (M. Mashabi meninggal bunuh diri di rumahnya di Tanah Abang, Jakarta).

Munif pandai berdendang Melayu, tetapi menyanyikan lagu Arab pun jago. Di samping Ya Mustafa yang mencapai hits, lagu Meester Machmud pun meledak. Lagu ciptaan Munif Ya Gazibni banyak disukai khalayak penggemar musik.

(Pada tahun 1965 Munif diundang untuk bernyanyi di Yaman. Ia menyanyikan lagu-lagu Melayu dan Arab dengan iringan gitar yang ia mainkan sendiri. Sambutan publik cukuplah. Dan Munif pun diwawancara Televisi Yaman. Ketika pewawancara menanyakan ia orang mana, dengan tegas Munif berkata bahwa ia orang Indonesia. Pewawancara menukas, bukankah anda menggunakan nama famili Bahaswan, mestinya anda orang Hadramaut, Yaman. Munif menandaskan lagi bahwa dirinya adalah orang Indonesia, masalah nama famili Bahaswan itu adalah soal biologi. Alangkah gusarnya sang pewawancara. Sejak wawancara itu Munif diboikot wartawan Yaman).

Peran kaum peranakan Arab cukup signifikan dalam musik Melayu. Juga di Malaysia. Dua penyanyi Melayu yang tersohor di Malaysia, SM Salim dan Syarifah Aini berdarah Arab. Meski perlu dicatat pada sekitar tahun 1956 muncul OM Bukit Siguntang pimpinan anak Pecenongan A. Chalik. Namun haruslah diakui peran serta peranakan Arab dalam bidang ini. Mereka juga penggubah syair-syair yang indah. Lagu-lagu ciptaan Munif, misalnya Cinta Direkayasa, M. Mashabi Rasa Cinta, Hussein Bawafi Budi, Effendi Khayalan Suci, A. Kadir Keagungan Tuhan, adalah syair lagu dengan cita rasa yang tinggi. Menurut Munif, penggubah lagu seperti Hussein Bawafi sangat mendalami karya sastra Amir Hamzah dan Chairil Anwar.

Bina Ria

Sebuah konkurs bernyanyi lagu-lagu Effendi yang diadakan di Singapura pada sekitar tahun 1967-1968 dimenangkan oleh seorang pemuda Indonesia bernama Oma Irama. Sebenarnya ia penyanyi lagu-lagu Barat populer. Bukan untuk pertama kali ia menghikuti kongkurs. Sebelumnya juga ia mendapat tempat yang berarti dalam kongkurs lagu Barat populer. Kala itu ia menyanyikan lagu I who have nothing.

Oma Irama, kini Raden Haji Oma Irama atau potong letter Rhoma Irama, bukan lagi sebagai orang yang tak punya apa-apa. Ia berharta berkat musik dangdutnya. Musik Dangdut adalah derifat Musik Melayu Moderen. Rhoma Iramalah pelopornya ketika ia muncul dengan gaya musik yang lain dari yang lain membawakan lagu ciptaannya Bina Ria pada sekitar tahun 1969. Rhoma menciptakan aliran. Kalau musik Melayu Moderen mengandalkan accordeon sebagai lead instrument, Rhoma menggunakan electrik gitar. Dalam perkusi ia memasukkan unsur drum yang berperan menjadikan sebuah lagu menjadi beatles, punya warna irama yang jelas. Tamborin dipertahankannya, namun marakas tak lagi menampil. Alur musik melewati jeram-jeram breaks yang banyak. Pada musik Melayu moderen breaks hanya sekali-sekali saja, dan itu pun sedikit saja lagu yang alur musiknya memakai break. Sejarah Musik
Rhoma Irama menjadi "mazhab", ia adalah sebuah tonggak dalam perjalanan musik Melayu. Aliran ini ramai pengikutnya hingga kini. Tak banyak lagi yang "mengamalkan" musik Melayu moderen pada tahun 1970 kecuali M. Mashabi. Tetapi kelompok musik Mashabi hanya dapat ruang bermain di tempat yang terlalu bersahaja dengan sound system bertenaga accu. Dan Mashabi pun pergi ke haribaanNya dalam usia 40-an, di tahun 1970-an, pada saat musik Melayu modern yang ikut dirintisnya memudar.
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Oleh : Michael Gunadi Widjaja

Seperangkat perkusi yang terbuat dari metal.Membentuk sebuah orkestrasi bunyi yang lengkap,kompleks dan khas.Itulah Gamelan.Orkestra perkusi metal sebetulnya dikenal juga di Cina,Vietnam,Kamboja dan juga Thailand.Daerah di Indonesia pun tak cuma satu yang mengenal orkes perkusi metal.Jawa barat,Jawa tengah dan Bali.namun istilah gamelan khusus diperuntukkan bagi orkes perkusi metal di Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta.
Sejak abad 8 dan 9 gamelan telah ada dan dikenal.Seiring berjalannya waktu,gamelan seolah terpinggirkan oleh ekspansi musik barat.Gamelan menjadi orkestra bunyi yang asing bahkan di daerah asalnya.Generasi anak jaman lebih terpukau dengan musik barat yang kental oleh nuansa gemerlap industri musik.dan gamelan pun tercitrakan hanya sebagai bentuk seni yang kuno,antik,asing,aneh dan ketinggalan jaman.Tentu saja fenomena ini sangat menyedihkan,memilukan dan memprihatinkan.Sebagai salah satu national heritage,gamelan mestinya dapat lebih banyak berbicara di kalangan generasi anak bangsa.
Ada ironi yang terjadi pada gamelan.Di daerah dan tanah airnya,gamelan kurang mendapat tempat.Sementara di negara lain gamelan justru dianggap sebagai bentuk seni auditif yang sangat bermutu.Di Tokyo,gamelan menjadi cabang seni ketrampilan bagi siswa sekolah dasar.Di jurusan etno musikologi di Amerika Serikat gamelan merupakan mata kuliah mayor.Dari sanalah lahir musikolog seperti Lou harrison dan Jody Diamond,yang mengusung gamelan pada citra mendunia.Demikian juga di Selandia baru,di Wellington,ada Jack Body dengan gamelan Padhang Moncar.jack Body juga membuat gamelan mendunia dengan gubahan gendhing-gending baru.
Lou harrison.Peralatan gamelan dibuat di Amerika
Lou harrison.Peralatan gamelan dibuat di Amerika
Upaya melestarikan gamelan dan mencitrakannya hingga mendunia,dilakukan juga di tanah air,Almarhum Sapto rahardjo adalah pionir dalam upaya ini.Dimulai gagasannya dengan Yogyakarta International Gamelan Festival,konsep musiknya tentang gamelan meets synthesizer sampai kolaborasinya dengan pemusik Perancis Andre Jaumee dalam CD Suita Borobudur.
Alm.Sapto Rahardjo
Alm.Sapto Rahardjo
Upaya para pionir gamelan dan musikolog untuk mengusung gamelan untuk mendunia,bukanlah tanpa alasan.Gamelan tradisional memiliki konsep musik yang luar biasa kompleks.Tidak seperti musik barat,gamelan bukan musik Tonal melainkan musik modal Laras apapun dalam gamelan bisa menjadi awalan titi laras baru.Konsep modal jauh lebih dahulu dimiliki gamelan dibanding tangga nada Gregorian musik barat.Belum lagi sifat gamelan yang sensual,exotic dan jernih.
Gamelan sebagai mied music oleh KMSWT Tegal
Gamelan sebagai mied music oleh KMSWT Tegal
Dengan kekayaan jati dirinya,gamelan siap untuk menembus abad Millennium.Persoalannya adalah,gamelan harus ” bersaing ” dengan gemerlapnya industri musik dengan produk musik budaya barat yang sangat menggiurkan.Upaya yang dapat dilakukan adalah revitalisasi.menjadikan gamelan sebagai musik baru,new musik.hal ini dilakukan dengan :
  • Membuat gubahan yang menonjolkan fungsi tiap piranti gamelan.Jadi tidak harus gamelan tampil dengan performa penuh.Ada komposisi untuk dua gender saja.gender dan saron saja.Ataupun format ensemble yang ringkas.Ini sesuai dengan tuntutan jaman yang menghendaki portabilitas tinggi
  • melakukan mixed cultural.Misalnya gamelan berfusi dengan jazz atau jenis musik lainnya
  • Mengemas tampilan seni gamelan dengan performa panggung yang lebih menarik
Upaya tersebut masih terus gencar dilakukan.Agar gamelan benar-benar siap menembus abad Millennium.yang dapat dimaknai sebagai siap pula menghantar generasi anak bangsa menuju modernisasi tanpa kehilangan akar budayanya.
Berikut ini dapat kita saksikan bentuk revitalisasi gamelan.Ditampilkan oleh GAMELAN X (baca : gamelan crosover) dari USA.
http://hiburan.kompasiana.com/group/musik/2010/08/28/gamelan-menembus-abad-millennium/
www.thejeo.blogspot.com
oleh : Michael Gunadi Widjaja

” Setiap kali anda memutar lagu karya Gesang,bisa jadi anda sudah mencuri periuk nasinya “

Kalimat tersebut terpampang pada booklet resmi dari KARYA CIPTA INDONESIA sebuah organisasi yang bergerak dalam bidang hak cipta musik di Indonesia.Hak cipta karya musik,dalam highlight KCI dihubungkan dengan periuk nasi seseorang. Almarhum pak Gesang.Dan bicara tentang periuk nasi seseorang,agaknya memang kita harus mau untuk sedikit mengernyitkan kening.Dan memang hak cipta musik di Indonesia masih menyisakan permasalahan yang tidak ringan.
Hak cipta terhadap karya musik dalam artikel ini saya batasi menjadi dua hal : Printed Material dan Audio Material.Yang tergolong printed material adalah karya yang dicetak,baik buku maupun partitura lagu dan atau musik.Sedangkan audio material yang saya maksud adalah karya musik yang diperdengarkan.Tentu dalam bentuk rekaman.Dan pembajakan yang kali ini saya bicarakan bukan pembajakan seperti pembajakan VCD yang marak.Pembajakan dalam tulisan ini adalah pembajakan semu atau saya beri istilah PSEUDO PIRACY.Dan pseudo piracy ini terjadi dalam lingkup pemanfaatan komputer.
Illustrasi 1
Saya meminjam CD musik dari seorang teman.Sebuah CD paten.Artinya bukan bajakan,resmi,dan ada stiker etiket PPN nya.Karena saya suka dengan musiknya,saya bermaksud mengcopy CD tersebut untuk keperluan pribadi.Hanya pribadi dan untuk saya nikmati sendiri.Saat akan mengcopy,usaha saya gagal.Karena CD tersebut copyrighted protection.jadi tidak bisa dan tidak boleh dicopy.Saya tak berputus asa.Saya install softwre CD ripper.Dan dengan CD ripper tersebut tiap track dari CD, saya ripped (jagal paksa).Berhasil.Apakah ini sebuah pembajakan??? Kan saya melakukannya tidak untuk diperdagangkan.Hanya untuk pribadi.Jawabnya…ehm…Inilah pseudo piracy.Sama halnya dengan fotocopy.terhadap textbook dan fotocopy terhadap buku pelajaran musik dan buku lagu-lagu.
Illustrasi II
Saat seorang artis merilis album baru untuk dipasarkan,kurang dari 24 jam kita sudah bisa mengunduh album baru tersebut SECARA GRATIS!!!! Melalui internet.Banyak situs yang menyediakan konten unduh secara gratis untuk album lagu baru.Apakah ini sebuah pembajakan?? Toh pemilik situsnya tidak mendapat keuntungan apapun.Sama sekali tidak ada komersialisasi.Pengunduhan dilakukan secara gratis.Jelas tidak ada profit yang masuk ke dalam pemilik situs.Benefit??Tidak juga.Nama dan ketenaran pemilik situs??? Tidak juga Karena kita tak pernah tahu situs penyedia gratisan itu milik siapa.Dan servernya bisa saja berada di Canada,Aussie dengan alamat yang sulit dilacak.Sekali lagi…Inilah pseudo piracy.Dan ini juga berlaku bagi naskah-naskah musik.
Di sisi lain,pseudo piracy semacam ini sangat bermanfaat bagi pemusik-pemusik di daerah semacam saya ini.Di kota kecil seperti tempat tinggal saya,amat sangat sulit membeli buku musik.Bukan soal harganya,namun material nya yang tak tersedia.Contoh,buku JAZZ HANON.Silahkan cari bahkan sampai ke Medan,Jakarta,Jogja,Surabaya.Akan amat sangat sulit untuk mendapatkannya.Dengan internet..wow dan yahud.Saya tinggal mengunduh,dan gratis lagi.Inilah sisi lain dari pseudo piracy.Pernah ada yang mengatakan pada saya agar membeli buku musik via online.Membeli,bukan unduh gratisan.Saya coba di Amazon.com,hasilnya,amat mahal dan shipping nya sampai ke kota saya tidak kurang dari 20 hari !!Sementara siswa saya dalam 20 hari tersebut perkembangannya amat cepat.Dan seringkali buku atau naskah musik yang kita butuhkan tak tersedia pada situs belanja online yang resmi.
Sekelumit paparan tadi sepertinya ingin berujar bagi kita.Pseuda piracy atau pembajakan semu,memang benar-benar semu.Artinya batas antara pelanggaran dan manfaat benar-benar semu.Memang ada hak cipta karya musik yang dilanggar.Namun tidak ada komersialisasi untuk keuntungan ekonomi bagi tiap pribadi.Sementara manfaat dan mudharat nya amat besar.
http://hiburan.kompasiana.com/group/musik/2010/09/14/pembajakan-semu-terhadap-karya-musik/
www.thejeo.blogspot.com
Music of North Sumatra - Indonesian Culture, 75 thousand years ago, a volcano erupted deep in the interior of North Sumatra, spreading ash as far as Sri Lanka and leaving behind a crater now known as Lake Toba. One hundred kilometers long, it is the largest volcanic crater lake in the world. The fertile volcanic soils of its shores have supported intensive agriculture for millenia. Its great natural beauty has made it Indonesia's third-largest tourist attraction. This is the original homeland of the Batak, a family of seven Indonesian ethnic groups with a population of perhaps two million.



These seven groups (Toba, Karo, Simalungun, Pak-pak, Dairi, Angkola and Mandailing) have related but distinct languages, customs, and traditional arts. Such is the variety of Batak music and dance that no one program could present even a sampling of it all. Festival of Indonesia has chosen to concentrate on three highly contrasting traditions: those of the Toba, the Karo and the Mandailing.


The Batak groups are divided by religion (the Mandailing are Islamic; the Toba, Christian) and by language (Toba and Karo in particular are mutually unintelligible), but unified by a common passion for genealogy. It is not unusual to meet Batak men who can recite fluently the names of eight generations of their ancestors. These ancestral trees represent a sort of blueprint for Batak society; they explain the origins of and relations between the clans (marga) which dominate Batak social life.


Every Batak belongs to one of these patrilineal clans. They are exogamous: a man may not marry a woman from his own clan, but must search among other clans for a wife. The marriage ties which link clans form an intricate web of kinship which touches every aspect of Batak society. The clans also order Batak culture, ceremony, mythology and the arts.


There are musical compositions specific to one or another clan; clan membership determines the order of events at the life-cyle ceremonies at which music and dance are essential.


Music and dance play a crucial role in Batak society. The word for "ceremony" ("gondang" in Toba; "gendang" in Karo) is actually a musical term and refers both to the Batak orchestra of drums, gongs, and oboes and also to the tunes they play. The musicians are essential to a ceremony because they are the intermediaries between humanity and the Creator. The sounds of the drums and gongs convey human prayers to the spirit world.


Musicians thus command great respect in traditional Batak society and they must follow a certain code of behavior. "The musicians must be honest men," explained one old Toba Batak man, "otherwise they risk angering the spirits."
Gondang Uning-Uningan




Batak Toba Dance




Karonese Traditional Dance





Dembas Simenguda Dance Tapanuli




http://myindonesianculture.blogspot.com/2008/01/music-of-north-sumatra.html
www.thejeo.blogspot.com

There are increasingly many recordings of Chinese music. I have heard most of those produced in Europe or North America, and am starting to be able to hear those from China, Hong Kong & Taiwan as well. In the latter case, there is a large variety as well as some difficulty obtaining them, so I will concentrate entirely on the so-called literati music which is my priority. Returning to more generally available recordings, many are orchestral of various types, and so of lesser interest to me. There are also some song recordings, but I have not explored those as much. Somewhat unusually, instrumental performance has long had a certain kind of pre-eminence in Chinese art music, as scholars of all disciplines were expected to become proficient in it.
Chinese music is basically pentatonic-diatonic, meaning that the basic pentatonic scale can be modulated within a diatonic context. The theory talks of 12-notes to an octave, but most of the compositions are overwhelmingly pentatonic with diatonic/chromatic passing tones. This is even more true of the traditional orchestral music than of the more intricate scholarly music which makes up most of this page. Generally speaking, the Chinese tunes with which many readers will be familiar are much simpler than most of what appears here.
Solo instrumental performance is the most serious musical genre, and will be emphasized here. The best performances should bring out harmony with one's surroundings, although at times a more aggressive tone is used. The intonation is very subtle, and generally similar to poetic recitation. The music itself is clearly designed to be an abstract complement to the highly-developed poetic genres, and bears similar titles. The prominence of poetry & the aphorism might help explain the restricted impact of vocal art music.
There are rather few classical compositions, although each instrument has its own repertory. Some of these repertories are several centuries old, and musicians add to them only slowly, especially in some areas. Therefore many compositions will be repeated from CD to CD, mostly for the same instrument, but sometimes versions exist for more than one instrument. Also, a performance by a musician from a different lineage will often bring out different facets.
I will especially emphasize qin music, and look to buy many such recordings. Now there are literally dozens available, of very high quality. The qin section is consequently large, and increasingly becomes a priority. In other areas, I intend to keep representative samples up to date, but have largely stopped putting in similar effort.

Anthologies still provide the easiest way to experience Chinese art music, as the variety of instruments and styles can be surveyed in one recording. Although that will not be the focus here, experiencing different instrument combinations is certainly recommended for a full appreciation. The finest general anthologies are probably those on Ocora Radio France, Wind Records, and the set on Celestial Harmonies reissued from the Hugo label (some of which will appear below).
All of the suggested recordings below are modern and of good production quality. Fortunately, the situation with music produced in China is much better in this respect than with that produced in India, so there is no real conflict between recording & musical quality. There are now several recordings which are extremely compelling in all aspects.

Qin

The seven-(historically five- or ten-)string zither, qin, is considered to be the supreme instrument of the scholar. The compositions make use of a wide range of timbral effects. Its repertory consists of approximately 600 pieces, including some dating to pre-Han times. Playable instruments survive from as early as the T'ang Dynasty. The system of tabulature notation was invented in the T'ang period, replacing an older system in which a piece was described entirely in words (some of these sources survive). This marks one point in the development of the repertory. The next came with proper printing which began in the Sung & Ming eras, and so makes it possible for the first time to securely date versions in the modern sense. New items are slowly added to the repertory, and some rhythmic interpretations are now given in Western notation in supplement to tabulature. This instrument continues to provide the main musical representation of the literati culture.
The instrument speaks to me particularly strongly. The guqin presents an exceptional richness of timbre and subtlety of articulation, along with a repertory refined over centuries. The music is quite sophisticated and dense in ideas, and presents a real opportunity for "interpretation" by a range of fine musicians. This section will be particularly extensive.
The first items to be listed are multi-CD anthologies recorded at qin conferences. This is a rather unique phenomenon, in which performers on the instrument routinely congregate in one location. The synergy developed can be quite remarkable, and the recording productions made over a couple of days at the conferences can illustrate the best pieces by some of the top performers present. In some sense, these programs are not anthologies, since they are recorded at the same location during the same sessions, often with the other performers in attendance.
The Art of Qin Music, Vol. 1
Hugo HRP 7136
The Art of Qin Music, Vol. 2
Hugo HRP 7137
The Art of Qin Music, Vol. 3
Hugo HRP 7138
The Eminent Pieces for Chinese Guqin, Vol. 1
Wild Swan of Autumn Wind Records TCD-1015
The Eminent Pieces for Chinese Guqin, Vol. 2
Misty Rivers of Xiao Xiang Wind Records TCD-1016
The Eminent Pieces for Chinese Guqin, Vol. 3
Music of King Wen Wind Records TCD-1017
The Eminent Pieces for Chinese Guqin, Vol. 4
Missing an Old Friend Wind Records TCD-1018
These are the two such conference anthologies on CD, and each is remarkably compelling. Either set makes an obvious first place to go in order to build an appreciation of this instrument and its music.

Individual recitals

Of course, individual recitals are an opportunity for a performer to present a personal style in more extensive detail. In this sense they can be more compelling, although learning even a handful of qin pieces to the level of mastery sought can be a long process. I have selected several individual recitals whose styles are particularly compelling to me.
Selections in order of performer seniority:
Guangling Qin Music, Vol. 1
Zhang Zi-Qian Hugo HRP 7139
Wumen Qin Music
Wu Zhao-Ji Hugo HRP 712
Shu (Sichuan) Qin Music, Vol. 2
Yu Bo-Sun (Disc I) Hugo HRP 7131
Guqin
The Art of Yao Gongbai World Music Library 5232
Shu (Sichuan) Qin Music, Vol. 3
Zeng Cheng-Wei Hugo HRP 7133
Guangling Qin Music, Vol. 3
Dai Xiao-Lian Hugo HRP 7141
I have been selective for this list, just as on other pages, but believe it does also represent the variety available in performance fairly well. However, there are many other recordings of high merit which could be listed, so it is not exhaustive in that sense. I intend to continue to explore new recordings as they appear and make some adjustments in the list.
The range of articulation for this instrument gives rise to a rather striking variety of performance styles, especially as regards the two aspects of "vibrato" yin & nao (the former narrow and buzzing, and the latter longer and twang-like). The approach to rhythm also differs markedly between the different qin lineages, although the styles have been coming together in the hands of younger performers.

Zheng

The zheng is a movable-bridge zither, and the most dynamic solo instrument in China. Its repertory ranges widely, from ancient pieces in a style similar to those for qin, to various regional styles related to folk songs & operas, and on to a large body of newly-composed music for the instrument. The technique can be quite complex, especially in the newer music. A very traditional and refined selection:
Lotus - Han Zheng Music
Rao Ningxin Hugo HRP 704
This is the most characteristic instrument of the Chinese classical orchestra, described in writing as early as the Han Dynasty, and found in variants thoughout the area. Instruments of similar heritiage and design include the Japanese koto, as well as important instruments in Korea and Vietnam. Some traditional models have 13 to 16 strings, whereas more modern designs can have as many as 30 strings. The 21-string variety is now considered the standard.

Pipa

The pipa is a pear-shaped lute-like instrument with large frets and a broad finger-board. It was introduced into China from Central Asia prior to the T'ang Dynasty, and has both a "literary" and a "martial" repertory. This fine recording illustrates both:
Chine: L'art du pipa
Lin Shicheng Ocora (Radio France) C 560046
In this case, there are other recordings available on Western labels, although the present one is still preferred. I have seen none from China itself, oddly enough.

Xiao

Although it has a very long history going back to Han times and beyond, the xiao has been slow to develop a solo repertory. It is a vertically-held bamboo flute, and the only instrument appropriate for accompanying the qin, as it is suited to music of similar depth and restraint. The following recording includes some superlative solo tracks:
Chinese Tung-Hsiao
The Art of Tong Ku-Chiun Wind Records TCD-1007
Besides the vertical flute xiao, there is also the side-blown flute di which has a very large repertory oriented mostly toward spritely & operatic music. It is often used in small ensemble situations, and there are some quality recordings featuring it, including on Western labels.

source: medieval.org
Delicious : musicmusic classicalmusic chinese
javanese gamelan

Indonesia is a big country, consisting of many cultures with many musical traditions. The biggest culture, with the most highly refined musical tradition, is that of the Javanese. The island of Bali also supports a distinct classical tradition. The music of other cultures has also been recorded, but I will not be dealing with that, as it has more the character of folk art.

Since many readers are apparently less familiar with the Javanese cultural setting (as opposed to India, China or Iran), I will discuss this background before proceeding to the list of recordings. The language we call Javanese is spoken in the central and eastern parts of the island of Java. The western part is Sundanese (from which there are also a few recordings, not to be discussed). Javanese is a very complicated language, consisting of three distinct vocabularies and grammars to be used with those in superior, equal, or inferior social positions with respect to the speaker. The national language of Indonesia is a modern construction, designed for simplicity and easy use by the wide array of different cultures within its boundaries.

Prior to the European period, Javanese was the dominant culture of the region, at times holding hegemony in parts of the Asian mainland. For instance, in the early-medieval history of what is now Cambodia, a restoration of the traditional monarchy was heralded by the arrival of a prince from Java to take the kingship. During the Mongol era, a large invasion fleet (much larger than that sent to Japan) was sent to Java, only to be soundly thrashed at sea, without a landing. This will give the reader some idea of the Javanese strength, but it should also be noted that this hegemony was generally not expressed through military means (at least insofar as we understand it), but rather as cultural and trading superiority. Of course, this situation was drastically modified by the arrival of the Arab traders.

Indonesia is counted as the most populous Muslim nation in the world, but this is somewhat misleading. Islam is not a "state religion" as it is in many Islamic countries, and there is quite a bit of variety, although the majority of inhabitants do profess Islamic beliefs. Among the larger cultures, North Sumatra is the "most" Muslim; in fact, it was home to a major Islamic University (known, for instance, in China) during the later medieval era. Java is also Islamic, in the sense that the people believe in many of the tenets of Islam and identify themselves as Muslims, but there are also other simultaneous belief systems. Prior to Islam, Java was alternately Hindu and Buddhist (and Bali remains Hindu), and these beliefs continue to be important for Muslim people. There is also an older layer of native religious practice which is still alive and well. Javanese religion is termed "syncretistic" (i.e., combining various influences), and it is generally only our tendency to give priority to the monotheistic religions which yields the Javanese the designation of "Islamic" per se. Of course, the influence of Islam should not be understated either.

The above discussion of syncretism should not give the impression that Java is an area of religious conflict. The different belief systems have been molded into a coherent whole, and the various public rituals (like the calendar with its simultaneous cycles of five and seven days, i.e. these coincide every thirty-five days) are thoroughly ingrained throughout the Javanese population (of course, as we know, the "Europeanized elite" frequently have different ideas). The Sanskrit classic epic Mahabharata continues to be a huge cultural influence on Java (it is easily apparent from the simple fact that many personal names are taken from that text, etc.) and the shadow puppet theater based on episodes from this epic is one of the most distinctive and wide-spread Javanese cultural practices. The gamelan is always used to accompany these plays (wayang kulit). The classical dance forms of Indonesia are also attaining some level of popularity in the USA (you could have seen them regularly in the Rose Bowl Parade, for instance), and much of the court music was written to accompany dance. There is also a large and impressive body of surviving classical literature on various topics, usually written in verse (including a verse encyclopedia, if you can imagine...).

The gamelan orchestra, based on metallic percussion with some wooden xylophones and drums, is well-known to many readers. In various forms, it is ubiquitous to Southeast Asia. In Java, the full gamelan also adds a bowed-string instrument (the rebab, a name illustrative of Islamic influence), a bamboo flute (suling) and voices. The rebab is one of the main melodic instruments, together with the bronze xylophone "gender," and is often played by the senior musician to lead the ensemble. Voices consist of male (and sometimes female) choruses called gerong, together with female soloists called pesindhen. However, the voices are not used as "lead" instruments in court gamelan (as opposed to wayang kulit, shadow puppet theater) and blend with or complement the sound. More specifically, the chorus is very much a part of the texture, whereas the soloist has an almost-separate improvisatory role, including the use of notes outside of the mode of the piece. In these abstract pieces, mostly "gendhing" on the current list, the words are largely secondary to the music.

This list of recordings is devoted to court gamelan. There are four royal courts (kratons) in Central Java, two each in Surakarta (Solo) and Yogyakarta. Returning briefly to history... when the Dutch took over the Southeast Asian trade and established themselves in Java (Sunda, actually), their policy was not to destroy the royal court, but to isolate it. In other words, they did everything they could to remove any political influence from the sultans, but allowed the court to remain as a cultural institution (which had always been a large part of its role, perhaps analogous to the Chinese Emperor). Much later, the court (originally in Solo) divided into four, due to philosophical differences (of aesthetic) in the royal house, and with encouragement from the Dutch. The kratons continue to serve as cultural and educational institutions, and house the classical music tradition of Java. Each court has a huge roster of musicians and an extensive collection of historical instruments. Today many of these musicians also have jobs outside their kraton, but this was not true in the recent past. Despite what any of this discussion might imply, the music itself is extremely coherent. It shows no sign of mixed objectives, but is rather a "pure" style. The repertory is vast.

There are two scales in Javanese gamelan music, "slendro" (pentatonic) and "pelog" (heptatonic-pentatonic). Tuning is not standard, rather each gamelan set will have a distinctive tuning. A complete gamelan consists of a pair of sets, one tuned in each of the scales and intended to be played together in many instances. Different gamelan sets have different sonorities, and are used for different pieces of music; many are very old, and used for only one specific piece. Musical forms are defined by the rhythmic cycles. These consist of major cycles subdivided by smaller cycles, each marked by the striking of successively smaller gongs. The melodic interplay takes place within this framework (technically called "colotomic"). There are also distinct melodic modes ("pathet") within the division of scale, three for each of the scales. The modes are defined according to which notes of the scale are emphasized, much like the vadi/samvadi concept in Indian classical music.


medieval.org 
Delicious : musicinstrumentjavaneseindonesianculture
1. Bimbo
Grup musik tahun 1960-an , Bimbo yang merupakan grup keluarga ini identik dengan lagu-lagu balada cenderung lirik-lirik puitis dan religi. Lagu Tuhan merupakan lagu yang sering didengar saat Ramdhan, menyentuh dan menjadikan kita ingat akan Tuhan...

2. Haddad Alwi
Seorang penyanyi religi Indonesia yang sukses dengan Album Cinta Rasul ini ingin mengajak anak-anak sekecil mungkin mengenal agama Islam lebih jauh.

3. Raihan
Grup Nasyid asal Malaysia mulai debutnya dengan Album Puji-pujian. Lagu yang pasti sering kamu dengar dan ikut bersenandung saat mendengarnya. Nggak hanya itu ternyata ada album Demi Masa yang laku keras di Indonesia.

4. Opick
Terkenal dengan sorban putihnya yang menghiasi kepala, lagu-lagu Opick bisa menyentuh hati. Lagu Istighfar di tahun 2005 sukses menggaung di mana-mana. Nggak hanya itu, Opick juga pandai menciptakan lagu religi untuk musisi lain seperti Amanda dan Melly Goeslaw.

5. Snada
Grup nasyid Snada bisa menciptakan tim-tim nasyid muda yang bermunculan. Mereka bisa menyebarkan agama melalui sekolah, kampus, pernikahan, dan acara lainnya. Jagalah Hati merupakan lagu Snada yang paling booming.


6. Sulis
Bocah cilik yang melejit namanya dengan lagu Cinta Rosul setelah berduet dengan Haddad Alwi ini tetap konsisten di jalur musik religi. Sudah banyak album yang ditelurkan oleh penyanyi perempuan berjilbab ini.

7. Debu
Grup band nasyid Debu sukses menyiarkan agama islam di Indonesia, padahal mereka bukan orang Indonesia. Lagu-lagu dan musiknya pun selalu menceritakan kedamaian, cinta dan kerinduan pada sang pencipta.

8. Gigi
Band asal Bandung ini sukses mengajak anak muda dengan musiknya bernyanyi lagu religi. Gaya khas sang vokalis tidak menjadikan lagu mereka seolah-olah menasehati. Lagu Pintu Surga dan Perdamaian sukses di pasaran dan bisa diterima masyarakat meski musik mereka tetap seperti Gigi apa adanya.

9. Ungu
Bukan cuma Gigi, band Ungu juga mengeluarkan album religi. Lagu-laguya yang mendayu membuat hati terasa tenang saat mendengarnya. Berkolaborasi dengan Ustad Jeffry (UJ) lagu Para Pencari-Mu sangat sukses dipasaran.

10. Wali
Background personil yang kuat dalam pemahaman agama, band Wali juga sukses mengajak kita untuk mendengarkan musik-musik religi. Lagu shalawat dan Ingat solat membuat pendengar ikut bernyanyyi dan tergugah dengan lirik indahnya.

rileks.com
www.thejeo.blogspot.com
sinta jojo

Lissa penyanyi asli Keong Racun dan manajemen menyesal Keong Racun dibeli Charlieb 'ST12'. Maklum, sebelumnya sempat ditawaran Rp100 juta.

Sinta dan Jojo kini jadi artis. Dalam waktu dekat keduanya akan menjadi bintang video klip lagu Keong Racun yang akan digarap Charlie ST12."Kebodohan kita, Abuy yang tidak bisa dihubungi. Bukan mau ngapa-ngapain. Dia kan dibawah manajemen saya," ungkap Ira, manajer Lissa penyanyi asli Keong Racun, melalui telepon selulernya, di Jakarta, Jumat (30/7/10).
Maklum, sebelum kontrak dengan Charlie, lagu Keong Racun sempat ditawar Rp100 juta.
"Iya, lagu kan banyak yang mau beli. Dari valcon mau beli lagu Rp 100juta."
Lagu Keong Racun saat ini tidak hanya menjadi perbincangan hangat di dunia maya saja, tetapi dimana-mana orang sudah mulai membicarakannya.
Hal yang paling mencengangkan lainnya adalah ketika lagu itu sempat menjadi trending topic pada situs mikrobloging Twitter.
Hingga saat ini jumlah viewers video Keong Racun telah mencapai 638,847 viewers, yang berarti semakin hari video tersebut semakin dicari dan diminati.
Lagu Keong Racun pertama kali dinyanyikan oleh seorang penyanyi bernama Lissa dalam album bertitel Dangdut Techno rilisan label Air Atudio.

infogue.com
Dwiki Dharmawan
Jakarta - Musisi jazz dan komposer Dwiki Dharmawan punya cara sendiri untuk mempromosikan Taman Nasional Komodo agar diakui sebagai 'Seven Wonder of Nature'. Dwiki nge-jazz ala Flores.

Suami penyanyi Ita Purnamasari itu akan ambil bagian di 'Jazz Fort Rotterdam 2010' Minggu (1/8/2010) malam ini di Benteng Fort Rotterdam, Makassar. Ia memilih mementaskan orkestra bernuansa musik khas Flores, daerah asal Komodo di hari kedua 'Jazz Fort Rotterdam 2010' (JFR 2010).

Saat berbincanng dengan detikhot di jumpa pers JFR 2010 di Benteng Fort Rotterdam, Jumat (30/7/2010), Dwiki mengakui grup orkestranya, World Peace Orchestra (WPO), akan tampil dengan musisi asal Flores untuk mempromosikan Taman Nasional Komodo. "Kami berharap orang-orang di negeri kita ini bisa mencintai apa yang dimilikinya. Seperti halnya Taman Nasional Komodo," kata pentolan Krakatau Band itu.

Di hari pertama JFR 2010 Sabtu (31/7/2010) malam ini, Dwiki akan tampil bersama Krakatau Band. "Kami sudah tampil di 30 negara, tapi baru kali ini kami diberi kesempatan tampil di Makassar, apalagi di tempat heritage Benteng Fort Rotterdam," tandas Dwiki.
 (mna/ebi)

music.detikhot.com
sinta jojo keong racun

Syndrom Star bisa terjadi kepada siapa saja dan kapan saja. Apalagi di era internet dewasa ini, setiap orang, tanpa terkecuali, dimanapun berada, bisa mempromosikan dirinya sendiri lewat jejaring sosial yang tersedia di dalamnya. Demikian diyakini pemerhati musik Denny Sakrie mengomentari fenomena meledaknya rekaman video Keong Racun di Youtube yang dibawakan secara lipsinc oleh Sinta dan Jojo.

Di tangan dua mahasiswi yang masih duduk di bangku kuliah, di salah satu universitas swasta di Bandung itu, singgel ''Keong Racun'' yang sejatinya dalam versi aslinya dinyanyikan Lisa, melejit bak meteor. Dalam irama tarling, lagu yang berkisah tentang sosok laki-laki yang nyaris nir sopan santun dalam memperlakukan perempuan yang baru dikenalnya itu, diunduh lebih dari 70 ribu orang.

Popularitas Sinta dan Jojo pun langsung mengorbit. Sehingga menjadikan dirinya sangat dikenal di Bandung, dan Jakarta. Bahkan sebuah komunitas bernama Keong Racun Community dibuat di jejaring perkawanan Facebook. Meski tidak sedikit yang mengolok-olok dua mahasiswi itu atas kreatifitas mereka mengunggah aktifitas lipsinc itu.

Memang, selain ''Keong Racun'', ada beberapa singgel hit lain yang mereka lipsinc kan kemudian diunggah sendiri di Youtube. Diantaranya singgel ''Slowdown Baby'', ''Telephone'', ''Bete'', ''Bukan Cinta Biasa'', dan beberapa judul lagu lainnya. Tapi entah mengapa, ''Keong Racun'' yang menjadi topic trending.

Masih menurut Denny, sebagaimana orang tua Justin Bieber, yang pada awalnya mengunggah rekaman menyanyi anak mereka sendiri, sebelum akhirnya bersambut dengan nasib baik. Hal yang sama terjadi dengan duo Sinta dan Jojo. Atau kepada artis-artis dadakan lainnya. Dia mencontohkan, di Malaysia ada sebuah grup band yang gitarisnya akhirnya diajak rekaman oleh Jack Johnson, karena menonton aksi mereka di Youtube.

Demikian halnya di Philipina, ketika seorang penyanyi berbakat yang mempromosikan dirinya sendiri di Youtube, akhirnya diajak rekaman oleh David Foster. Dan yang terkini, ketika salah satu peserta Indonesia Mencari Bakat yang diputar di salah satu stasiun TV swasta, yaitu pemain drum yang masih bocah itu, mendapat apresiasi yang sangat bagus dari drummer Dream Theater. Sebuah grup band progresif rock terkemuka di dunia.

Hal yang sama terjadi dengan Sinta dan Jojo, yang belum lama ini menjadi cover utama majalah remaja Hai, edisi nomor 29 yang terbit 19 Juli lalu. Dengan sebuah judul besar berbunyi; “Artis Indonesia Terpanas di Youtube". Apa yang istimewa dari aksi minus one atau playback Sinta dan Jojo dalam melagukan ''Keong Racun''?

Sebagian penikmat tayangan Youtube-nya menilai karena kelucuan, kepolosan, serta kecantikan dua gadis geulis mojang Bandung itu. Tapi sebagian lain ada juga yang menilai karena kenorakannya, kekampungannya, bahkan keusilannya. Meski sebagaimana diakui Sinta dan Jojo, pada awalnya mereka tidak berniat mengunggah aksi mereka di Youtube

indonesiantunes
Iranian Classical Music
Iranian classical music is modal and monophonic. The most serious interpretations generally consist of a melodic soloist (or sometimes, a duet) and often a percussion accompanist. Orchestral combinations are becoming popular, but I will largely ignore those.
There are twelve basic modes: seven primary modes (dastgah-s) and five secondary modes (avaz-s). Each avaz is derived from a specific dastgah, but it is also able to stand by itself. Performance is based on the idea of a "suite" in a single mode, in which the artist will choose items to make a finished composition. Actual performances generally proceed largely as improvisations, incorporating and culminating in the chosen melodic patterns. Part of the artistry is to make smooth transitions between elements of the suite.
The standard melodic patterns of Iranian classical music are codified in something called the Radif, written down from oral sources at the beginning of this century. The Radif consists of a large number of melodies or sequences (gushe-s) grouped by mode. Some dastgah-s have more gushe-s than others. To form a suite, the artists will select appropriate gushe-s, along with classical poetry, improvised elements or original compositions. Some gushe-s are always present in a classical rendition, whereas others are less common; the order within the suite is also pre-determined, to some extent. Some gushe-s and compositions have specific rhythms, while others do not. When there is a percussion accompanist, he will take part in some sections but not in others. Finally, there are different versions of the Radif that different artists will use, especially for different instruments.
There is a large body of classical poetry, from medieval times to the present day, available to vocalists. This is some of the world's great literature, and the flowing, timeless intensity of an Iranian singer will really bring these fine poems to life. Most of the poems are rhythmically free (that is, sung without a time signature, but following an internal rhythm of phrasing), and are generally performed within the context of a suite of gushe-s taken from the Radif.
Although the classical poetry is largely medieval, and the codification of the Radif is modern, the musical forms are believed to date from the days of Classical Persia. Iranian music has managed to sustain itself in recent decades, despite political suppression, and looks to be undergoing a burst of creativity.
A variety of instruments are used; I'll list them in no particular order. The santur is a hammered dulcimer, similar to the santur used in Indian classical music (pioneered by Shivkumar Sharma), though of a brighter tone. The tar and setar are fretted plucked-string instruments, with sharp overtone series (the tar is the larger of the two). The ney is the reed flute common throughout the Near-east, although the Iranian technique is probably the most versatile, using both the low breathy register and the sharp higher register (held between the teeth). The kamancheh is a narrow, upright bowed-string instrument. The violin and oud (ancestor of the lute) are also used.
Iranian classical instruments are generally brighther and crisper in tone than many of those used by neighboring cultures. However, the voices are very deep and rich, although highly animated. The main percussion instruments are the zarb (also called tombak) and daf (in that order), and both tend to add a surprisingly subtle sonority to a performance. There are also solo percussion recordings, but I do not explore those.

There have been many more Iranian Classical CDs appearing in the last few years, and so I have revised this list to mention only those I consider to be highlights.
No consistent spelling is attempted; comments will follow the discs to which they apply. In all cases, the quality of the production & recorded sound are first-rate, unless noted otherwise.
I will eschew compilation surveys in favor of dedicated individual recitals.

Vocal

Iran: Masters of Traditional Music, Volume 2
Mohammad Karimi / Mohammad Musavi Ocora (Radio France) C 560025
Most of this disc consists of a duet between Karimi & Musavi, followed by two shorter suites by Musavi. The late Mohammad Karimi was previously one of the most influential teachers in Iran. This is one of my favorite recordings of any genre, with an almost unparalleled luminosity. Although it might seem a bit uninvolved to some listeners, I enjoy it very much.
The Abu-Ata Concert
Mohammad Reza Shajarian / Mohammad Reza Lotfi Kereshmeh KCD-107
This is a duet between two of the greatest living performers of Persian music. Shajarian is known throughout the world as the leading Iranian vocalist; his strong voice easily mixes passion with tenderness. Lotfi is of the most influential tar players of the era, having contributed a more colorful instrumental technique as well as unique insights into the structure of Persian music. This performance is widely regarded as one of the greatest music concerts to be heard in Iran.
Iran: Masters of Traditional Music, Volume 3
Shâhrâm Nâzeri / Dariush Talâ'i Ocora (Radio France) C 560026
Shahram Nazeri is a singer in the sufi tradition, and incorporates some Kurdish folk compositions into a classical context. This is a very energetic performance.
Parisa: Live in Concert, USA Tour
Tale of Love: I. Esfahan Parisa / Hossein Omoumi Kereshmeh "Quarter Tone" QTCD-1005
Parisa: Live in Concert, USA Tour
Tale of Love: II. Nava Parisa / Hossein Omoumi Kereshmeh "Quarter Tone" QTCD-1006
This is a quality series of live recordings continuing the vocal-ney duet theme. Parisa is the leading student of Karimi, and has re-established her reputation after a forced silence during Iran's revolutionary period.
There are other recordings, especially of Nazeri & Shadjarian, singing various combinations of material, frequently with larger ensembles in accompaniment.

Santur

Classical Music of Iran
Faramarz-e Payvar Al Sur (Media 7) 164
Faramarz Payvar (b.1932) is one of the leading senior Iranian musicians, and regarded by many as the greatest santur player of our time. Santur is often played by ensemble leaders, and Payvar has been conductor for the National Radio & Television; he has also composed extensively. The present performance is unaccompanied and establishes a robust solo idiom, without the ordinary echo effect.
Dawn
Parviz Meshkatian Kereshmeh KCD-108
Parviz Meshkatian directs the ensemble accompanying Shadjarian on the Ocora disc above, and here he plays santur accompanied only by percussion. This is a haunting performance which introduces dialog effects between the santur and itself.
The Classical Tradition of Iran, Volume III
The Santur: Majid Kiani Harmonia Mundi HMA 190395
Majid Kiani plays full suites on this recording, as opposed to less standard sequences he plays on the Ocora disc above. He is a leading figure in the Iranian musical establishment, and known for his closely controlled expositions. Although his style tends toward the ascerbic, the precise treatment on this disc is rewarding.

Setar

Masters of Persian Traditional Music, Volume 2
Ahmad Ebadi Caltex Records 2070
The late Ahmad Ebadi was one of the most admired performers in Iran. His playing on this disc is the most supple and vocal-style performance on Iranian setar/tar that I've heard. There is a tremendous lyrical depth here, as well as the lightning fast sequences for which setar playing is known.
Intégrale de la musique savante Persane: Radif
Dariush Tala'i Al Sur (Media 7) ALCD 116-120 (5 CDs)
The above set is a particularly worthwhile item on this list, illustrating as it does a complete Radif by a leading instrumentalist. Tala'i (b.1952) has an approach based on a sensitive classicism and a genuine expressiveness. He has a fine lyrical sense, and is able to maintain linear continuity throughout. This set is highly recommended for anyone who is serious about Iranian classical music.
At present, no solo recordings on the tar are included on this list. The same performers tend to perform on both tar and setar.

Ney

Iran
Hassan Kassaï: Le Ney Playasound 65051
Hassan Kassai is perhaps the most highly regarded master of the ney. His performance is very strong, showing deep formal insight and strong phrasing. This recital exhibits the most traditional and intense side of Iranian classical music.
Iran: Le Ney de Mohammad Mousavi
Buda Musique du Monde 92645
There is just something about the sound of the Persian ney, something which I do not really feel with the other instruments, despite enjoying them. Mousavi (b.1946) is a fine performer, and we're lucky to have so many recordings available.

Kamancheh

Persian Music
Mahmoud Tabrizi-Zadeh Al Sur (Media 7) 112
Mahmoud Tabrizi-Zadeh (d.1997) was one of the younger generation of multi-faceted performers, but this performance is strictly classical, both intense and lyrical. Since the kamancheh is otherwise under-represented, this is an even more significant recording; European vielle players will likely find it intriguing.

medieval.org
This page will provide a little tour through continental Southeast Asia. In all of these cultures, music holds a high place. The discussion will be very brief, and unfortunately lacking in detail. Nonetheless, I hope this short survey proves worthwhile as a general orientation.


Cambodia

Historically, Cambodia was the dominant culture in peninsular Southeast Asia, whereas the others exerted their independence more recently (i.e. the last 500 years). Here it is the royal court music which is very highly developed and the most stimulating.
Cambodian court music is roughly similar to that of Java, i.e. choruses with large orchestras based on struck keys & gongs. This music gained a world-wide reputation in the 1960s, shortly before the dramatic political problems in Cambodia. Now it is struggling to recover.
As such, most of the available recordings are fairly similar. The most substantial recording of the big court styles:
Cambodge: Musiques du Palais Royal
Années soixante Ocora (Radio France) C 560034
Compared to Java, this style has more of a "folksy" air about it; the modes and rhythmic cycles are less elaborate. Sonorities of wood and plucked strings are more prominent, and some pieces incorporate reeds. As such it is sometimes more akin to the music of Thailand and other surrounding regions. The dance element is never far removed.
There is another similar recording on Auvidis Unesco (both recorded in the 60s). There is a recording devoted to the pinpeat style on Auvidis Inedit, as well as a Ramayana recording on Ocora, and a folk disc on Auvidis Unesco. There is a new recording on the Music of the World label. There is also a fairly recent 3CD anthology of music from throughout Cambodia on the Celestial Harmonies label which has some interesting material in a variety of styles, both court & folk. These can be rather intriguing.
With record distribution becoming more difficult to track these days, it is entirely possible that there are now other items worthy of note.


Vietnam

There is an amazing variety of musical style in Vietnam. The number of different instruments alone is astounding. I cannot begin to survey the field, nor can I pretend to really understand it. However, some thoughts are still in order.
Despite the wide array of different cultures, some basic centers do crystallize. One area which had a highly developed musical culture, based on various unique & intricate modes, was the central part of Vietnam centered on the court at Hue. This was the center of the medieval state of Champa, which had a direct relation to those in Indonesia, and was eventually overturned and replaced with rule by ethnic Vietnamese some decades before the European arrival.
A few recordings have illustrated some of the court songs and ceremonial music from this area, although for the most part it is pieced together from a post-French diaspora. Among these, the chamber repertory for the solo 17-string zither, incorporating both composed and improvisatory passages, remains among the most intriguing & distinctive. The following recital is a good one:
Vietnam: Tradition of the South
Nguyên Ving Bao, Trân Van Khê Auvidis Unesco (Anthology of Traditional Musics) D 8049
The style is monophonic, with unusual modes (vaguely similar to those of Korea). The latter performer (who accompanies on only two tracks) also has a recording on Playasound.
When it comes to "true" Vietnamese music from the North, an intriguing vocal style has begun to appear on record:
Viêt-Nam: La voix des maisons de chant
Phó Kim Dúc et al. Buda "Musique du Monde" 198 728
This style is essentially "art music" focusing on love themes and requiring a high degree of technical skill. Although its origin is not documented, it seems peripherally related to the Laotian selection below.
Other Vietnamese styles incorporate Chinese or Thai influences, while others are completely unique. There are supposedly a hundred or more musical instruments in use. A 3CD set on the Celestial Harmonies label makes a nice survey of the variety.


Thailand

Thailand is certainly the best-known of these countries to us today. The music is very cosmopolitan, borrowing ideas from many of the surrounding cultures, especially Cambodia. As such, it sounds rather mixed to me, and is definitely eclectic. Thailand is also fortunate to have the fine ensemble Fong Naam recording its traditional music. This ensemble consists of both virtuoso performers and musicologists. They have several recordings, and in my opinion one of the more unique & characteristic is this one:
Siamese Classical Music, Volume 5
The Mahori Orchestra Fong Naam Marco Polo 8.223493
Of course, the first four volumes of this series (which explore music of different historical eras) would be a fine place to turn to learn more about Thai music. There are also two recordings by Fong Naam on the Nimbus label, as well as recordings by other ensembles.
There was an explosion in the availability of Thai music recordings in the 1990s, although it remained a secondary interest for me. This wave of releases seems to have abated, however, for whatever reason.


Laos

Besides the court orchestras represented above, Northeast Thailand and Laos also have a more distinctive native tradition of improvised song and mouth organ (khene). The mouth organ sounds rather like a bagpipe, although the musical style is a bit different. The improvised songs (Lam) are impressive in their vitality. A superlative recording:
Laos: Lam Saravane / Musique pour le khène
Nang Soubane Vongath, Sengphet Souryavongxay, Nouthong Phimvilayphone Ocora (Radio France) C 559058
This music is quite different from the other traditions of Southeast Asia and the world (although it has its analogs in China). It has an "earthier" feeling than the other selections here, and is rather compelling and effective.
There is now a CD devoted to the Lam Sithandone style of improvisation (as opposed to the Lam Saravane above; there are six major styles of "Lam" in Laos) on the World Music Library label, which although valuable, lacks the highly charged atmosphere of the Ocora selection above.


Burma

Burma (Myanmar) has orchestral styles similar to Thailand and an unusual style of chamber music (the harp is the primary instrument) with a delicately ethereal sonority. A quality recording, illustrating both styles:
Birmanie: Musique d'art
Ocora (Radio France) C 559019/20 (2 CDs)
This music did not really hold its interest for me, but it is definitely worth hearing at least once, as there is nothing else quite like it. There is another survey to be found on the World Music Library label.


Elsewhere...

In addition to the lists for Java and Bali, there are other styles in Indonesia. Most of these cannot really be called "classical" (although there is a move to create a national style, combining tradition and innovation, and recordings of this music are available in a series from Lyrichord), and I will not list them. Otherwise, there are some related song traditions in Sunda, dating to the 19th century which are getting more exposure of late.
Finally, this disc from South India is as closely related to the other items above as it is to Carnatic music. It illustrates the primary percussion-based ceremonial styles (along with chant recitation) surviving in the state of Kerala:
South India: Ritual Music and Theatre of Kerala
Le Chant du Monde LDX 274 910  www.medieval.org
There are a large number of Balinese gamelan recordings available, in a variety of styles. This list will be very brief, containing only my own personal highlights of a rather large discography. In fact, after a relative explosion of recordings devoted to Balinese gamelan, the number of releases seems to have slowed considerably in recent years.
Compared to the style of Java, Balinese gamelan uses fewer sonorities. The sound is almost entirely derived from striking metal of various shapes, with skin drums used to direct the ensemble. The gamelan music does not include voices, winds, strings, etc.
The oldest and most austere style is the Gamelan Gong Gede. Two excellent recordings of this music:
Gamelan Gong Gede of Batur Temple
World Music Library 5153
Bali: Musique pour le Gong Gede
Ocora (Radio France) C 559002
An innovative style at the beginning of this century was the Gamelan Gong Semar Pegulingan. This style is sweeter and more rhythmically varied. There are other recordings of this style available, but the following is especially noteworthy:
Bali: Hommage a Wayan Lotring
Ocora (Radio France) C 559076/77 (2 CDs)
Lotring was the man who invented the Gamelan Gong Semar Pegulingan, and this set consists of Lotring and his musicians playing his own compositions (now often played by other ensembles). This recording was made in the 1970s when Lotring was an old man. As such, it is of unique musical value.
The more recent style is the Gamelan Gong Kebyar. This is the flashy style for which Balinese music is mostly known today. It will not appear here.
The classical music of the former Soviet Republics in Central Asia is often overlooked in a survey of the world's music, but this is completely unjustified. These regions have developed a unique and deeply compelling tradition, based on several centuries of refinement and influence. The various traditional styles of modern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan coexist closely, with the more populous Uzbekistan having more of the classical performers.
Obviously, Central Asia has long been a crossroads as well as the center of empires, whether Turkish, Iranian or Arabic. Alexander's exploits here are well-known. Music from this region is strongly conditioned by both Turkish & Iranian styles, along with a dose of its own originality. Besides the classical traditions of the populous Amu Darya (Oxus) valley, several other relatively unexplored traditions exist in this broad region which stretches from Iran into China.
Perhaps the most surprising aspect of the Uzbek / Tajik classical repertory is that it is relatively uniform across the national boundary. This becomes less surprising when one remembers that this was an important center of Muslim civilization after the Arabic conquest, and that its musical roots are said to reach even prior to this event. The styles are highly refined, yet seem to be lacking a sizeable audience today. They managed to survive official Soviet deprecation by adapting to the new environment, and by generally shortening the classical forms.
The following anthology serves as an ideal introduction to this underrated musical tradition. At the time it appeared, it had a very dramatic effect on me, and had to rate as one of my most compelling musical experiences. It is easily superior to some of the more folksy surveys found on other labels.
Asie centrale: Traditions classiques
Ocora (Radio France) C 560035-36 (2 CDs)
While the anthology does also contain a worthwhile survey of some of the related folk styles, it concentrates closely on the classical court styles. It still provides a fine introduction, but is perhaps supplanted in sustained appeal by the following recitals.
Indeed, Ocora began a series in supplement of this anthology, and it continues to be highly enlightening. I had anticipated further volumes, but the pace seems to have slowed considerably, with nothing of note since 1999.
The first volume is devoted specifically to the Ferghana style. It has perhaps adapted most aggressively and impressively to the new contraints of shorter presentation. There is an excellent suppleness here, and a subtlety of expression. The leading developments in new music for this tradition as a whole seem to have come from the Ferghana style.
Maqam d'Asie Centrale
1. Ouzbekistan: Ferghâna Monâjât Yultchieva Ocora (Radio France) C 560060
The disc is devoted exclusively to the singer Monâjât Yultchieva, said to be the best in generations, in terms of gravity and vocal tone. Her voice is extremely rich, and certainly the most compelling on this list in that sense. She is accompanied by the music scholar Shawqat Mirzâev (rabâb) and his instrumental ensemble.
The second volume turns to the Bukhara style, which is the oldest classical tradition in the region, and the one from which the others have been derived. It is more austere, and built of extended cycles on single modes. This is called the "Shash Maqam" (six modes, in Tajiki) repertory, made of elaborations on six great modes.
Maqam d'Asie Centrale
2. Tadjikistan: Tradition of Bukhara Jurabeg Nabiev / Ensemble Dorrdâne Ocora (Radio France) C 560102
The disc is again devoted to a specific singer, one of the most knowledgeable and popular of his generation. Jurabeg Nabiev is able to unfold and control the momentum of this vast form over more than an hour. The program actually presents a somewhat truncated version of what would be a full presentation in the Nava mode, due to CD constraints.
Besides Bukhara and Ferghana, the other major classical maqam tradition is that of Khiva... not yet on record.
There are a few other recent recordings devoted to folk or popular styles, but a scarcity even there. When it comes to folk traditions, the styles here change almost imperceptibly into those of surrounding areas from Iran & Afghanistan into Western China.
This gradual variation is perhaps most apparent in the instrumental music of the plucked-string dotar, the most important solo instrument of the region. The following anthology gives an impressive survey of the most important styles of Uzbekistan:
L'art du dotâr
Hamidov / Khodâverdiev / Razzaqov Ocora (Radio France) C 560111
These styles are representative of a broader range of styles which stretch from the West of Iran into Turkish China. Upper Uzbekistan and mountainous regions in the area have long been the most important areas for this ostinato-oriented style. Although connections between the performers are not historically explicit, the music can be remarkably consistent in contour. At one point, this repertory was strongly associated with shamanistic ideas, but it has found some entries into the modern world of Islam.

medieval.org
Wisnu Witono Adhi adalah pria asal Indonesia yang menetap di Norwegia dan berhasil masuk dalam ajang bergengsi Norwegian Idol sebagai finalis 5 besar.

Mungkin belum banyak yang tahu sepak terjang pria yang pernah berprofesi sebagai penata rambut ini. Wisnu menetap di Norwegia sejak usia 14 tahun untuk meneruskan pendidikannya.

Beranjak dewasa, ia mulai bekerja di salon sebagai penata rambut. Namun, hasratnya untuk terjun ke dunia tarik suara, tak terbendung lagi. Berkat dukungan teman-temannya, Wisnu pun mencoba peruntungan dengan mengikuti ajang Norwegian Idol 2006.

"Saya memang hobi musik, lalu banyak teman yang bertanya, ''Kok nggak ikut musik aja?'' Habis itu saya putuskan ikut idol," kata Wisnu yang ditemui di kediamannya di bilangan Jagakarsa, Pasar Minggu, 13 Juli 2010.

Setelah mengirim aplikasi, tanpa disangka-sangka, namanya masuk sebagai salah satu peserta. "Saat itu yang ngirim sekitar 8 ribu orang. Kemudian saya jalani aja. Dan tidak nyangka seleksi pertama saya lolos. Dari 8 ribu, ke 200 kemudian 100 sampai ke 12 finalis dan saya masuk 5 besar. Saya bener-bener tidak nyangka," katanya bercerita panjang lebar.

Wisnu adalah satu-satunya peserta dari Asia yang berhasil lolos hingga babak 5 besar. Dari situ, ia mulai diuji untuk menyanyi secara live. Berbagai lagu pun dibawakannya mulai dari lagu lokal Norwegia, lagu Swedia, Soundtrack film dan lagu Jazz milik Michael Bubble.

Selepas menyandang gelar 'Idol', Wisnu pun memutuskan untuk menggeluti dunia musik secara serius. Hingga saat ini, ia sudah mengeluarkan tiga hits single 'Love Like That', 'Follow Me' dan 'Me, Myself & I'.

Wisnu yang sampai saat ini menetap di Norwegia memiliki keinginan besar untuk bisa berkarir di Indonesia. Pria kelahiran Jakarta, 9 September 1983 ini mulai meniti karir menyanyi untuk tampil di konser-konser mini.

"Saya ingin berkarir di Indonesia. Saya berharap suatu hari nanti bisa pergi tour bawa dancer dan band saya ke Indonesia. Saya pengen rekaman pakai bahasa Indonesia, untuk memulai karir di Indonesia dan menyumbangkan pengalaman," ujarnya.

Vivanews.com
Tim peneliti dari Universitas Vienna meneliti ulang 3 ribu kasus dari 40 studi internasional yang menyimpulan tidak ada bukti efek dari Mozart.

“Siapapun yang mendengarkan musik baik Mozart, Bach tidak lebih baik dari grup yang tidak. Tetapi kami mengetahui bahwa orang akan memiliki performa yang baik jika mereka memperoleh stimulus,” ujar peneliti utama Jakob Pietsching.

Riset tidak mengatakan musik tidak berdampak pada pengembangan otak, namun pendengar pasif tidak memiliki keuntungan yang masuk di akal seperti yang diperkirakan sebelumnya.

Sementara studi lainnya menyarankan bahwa proses kreatif, analitis dan aktivitas fisik terlibat dalam pembelajaran yang mampu mempengaruhi fungsi kognitif dan otak.

Satu studi longitudinal menemukan bahwa anak-anak yang menerima rangsangan musik tidak selalu akan memiliki kemampuan bermusik, juga kemampuan lain termasuk tata bahasa atau logika matematika.

Studi tersebut memeriksa rangsangan dan pelatihan musik dan analisis terbaru memberikan kesimpulan bahwa tidak ada keuntungan kognitif yang ditawarkan

inilah.com
Kehadiran artis-artis asing ke Indonesia tampaknya semakin tidak dapat dibendung lagi. Fenomena kehadiran artis asing ke Indonesia sebagai bagian dari industri musik panggung merupakan suatu proses yang cukup panjang dalam sejarah industri musik di tanah air.
Pada saat orde lama mendatangkan artis asing dapat digolongkan sebagai tindakan melawan pemerintah. Hal itu disebabkan kebijakan pemerintah Soekarno melarang musik Barat yang digolongkan sebagai musik Ngak Ngik Ngok. Jangankan mendatangkan, memainkan lagu-lagu Barat saja dapat dikenakan hukuman penjara, seperti yang di alami band legendaris Koes Plus di Jakarta dan Bharata band di Surabaya.Beberapa penyanyi lainnya harus bolak-balik diinterogasi kejaksaan. Musik pada saat itu lebih mewujud sebagai alat politik, yaitu menentang neokolim.
Wujud tersebut masih nampak pada masa peralihan dari orde-lama ke orde-baru. Pada masa peralihan tersebut ABRI banyak memegang peran bagi perkembangan musik panggung di Indonesia. Peran tersebut di antaranya melalui program Panggung Prajurit. Suatu program pertunjukan musik di berbagai daerah untuk mengintegrasikan ABRI dengan rakyat dalam menghadapi komunis. Wujud politik dalam musik di sini diartikan sebagai pembalikan nilai. Nilai-nilai yang dominan anti-Barat pada masa Soekarno dibalikan oleh ABRI. Dalam Panggung Prajurit, para artis banyak menyanyikan lagu-lagu populer, era Soekarno dikenal dengan musik hiburan, yang pernah dilarang pemerintah. Pada masa peralihan ini banyak menimbulkan keraguan pada masyarakat mengenai eksistensi musik Barat di Indonesia. Apakah sekarang masyarakat Indonesia boleh memainkan lagu-lagu Barat atau unsur-unsur musik yang merusak?
Keraguan masyarakat segera terjawab ketika ABRI melalui BKS-Kostrad mengadakan kerjasama dengan Hotel Indonesia mengadakan pertunjukan band Blue Diamonds ke beberapa daerah di Indonesia dalam suatu rangkaian tur musik. Hal itu berlangsung dari Desember 1965 sampai Januari 1966. Pada pertengahan 1960-an grup musik asal Belanda ini sedang berada dalam puncak popularitas internasionalnya. Para pemain Blue Diamonds adalah pemuda-pemuda kelahiran Depok dan Cimahi, Jawa Barat.
Blue Diamonds dapat dikatakan sebagai artis Barat yang pertama kali datang ke Indonesia setelah Soekarno runtuh. Dan satu-satunya artis asing yang dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan politik. Kedatangannya ke Indonesia sangat berarti bagi proses pembalikan nilai yang dilakukan ABRI, dari orde-lama yang membatasi segala hal berbau Barat ke orde Baru yang tidak anti-Barat.
Pada perkembangan selanjutnya kehadiran artis-artis asing dalam panggung-panggung musik di Indonesia mulai sering ditampilkan. Hal itu lebih terasa pada masa awal tahun 1970-an. Ketika Indonesia mengalami tingkat perekonomian yang semakin membaik seiring dengan Boom Minyak. Pada era ini, kehadiran artis asing ke Indonesia tidak lagi mewujud sebagai politik melainkan sebagai bisnis.
Eforia orde-baru yang membolehkan musik Barat dan peningkatan ekonomi yang terjadi saat itu dapat dikatakan sebagai kondisi yang kondusif bagi pertumbuhan industri musik di Indonesia. Termasuk industri musik pertunjukan. Anak-anak muda berlomba mendirikan grup band dengan berkiblat ke Barat. Hotel-hotel dan tempat-tempat hiburan pun menjadi ajang pertunjukan. Selain menghadirkan artis dalam negeri tidak jarang mereka menghadirkan artis luar negeri. Selain sebagai selingan, kedatangan artis asing juga mempunyai daya jual yang tinggi.
Kedatangan artis asing tidak dapat dilepaskan adanya akses untuk menghadirkan artis-artis asing yang dibuka oleh anak-anak muda Indonesia yang menggilai musik. Mereka pada umumnya berasal dari kelas menengah atas Indonesia yang pernah mengenyam pendidikan di luar negeri. Misalnya, Denny Sabri yang pernah malang melintang di Jerman dan Amerika Serikat serta Peter Basuki di Belanda. Di luar negeri, mereka tertarik dengan dunia musik pertunjukan dan mulai masuk lingkaran orang-orang dalam industri musik panggung.
Kedua orang itulah yang kemudian berhasil mendatangkan super grup rock saat itu, Deep Purple, ke Indonesia pada 4-5 Desember 1975. Pertunjukan yang mereka hadirkan adalah suatu peristiwa paling fenomenal dalam industri musik panggung di Indonesia. Cerita sukses kedatangan Deep Purple bergaung lama, hal itu disebabkan liputan yang sangat luas dari media massa. Terutama majalah Aktuil yang saat itu menjadi “panduan” para pecinta musik Indonesia. Jumlah penonton yang spektakuler untuk saat itu (sekitar 30.000 orang), kerusuhan yang terjadi hari kedua pertunjukan, kematian salah seorang kru Deep Purple yang jatuh dari hotel tempatnya menginap, serta kematian petugas pengaman saat pertunjukan berlangsung menjadi pembicaraan yang tak habis-habisnya.
Meskipun harus menanggung kerugian yang diakibatkan pembakaran-pembakaran oleh penonton yang terjadi di sekitar stadiun pertunjukan tersebut dapat dikatakan sukses. Denny Sabri dan Peter Basuki mendapat keuntungan. finansial yang besar. Padahal saat itu mereka tidak menggunakan sponsor. Selain laporan hangar binger pementasan, masalah “dapur” ini juga mendapat sorotan berbagai media massa seperti Break Event Point nya modal yang mencapai tujuhpuluh juta rupiah, jumlah bayaran artis, dan jumlah keuntungan yang didapat oleh promotor. Sisi-sisi bisnis mulai dibahas secara terbuka.
Meskipun kesuksesan Deep Purple bukan faktor tunggal yang menentukan pertumbuhan industri musik panggung, tetapi tidak dapat disangkal bahwa dari peristiwa tersebut masyarakat menjadi lebih terbuka bahwa bisnis musik panggung yang mendatangkan artis asing sangat menguntungkan. Meskipun disadari juga banyak resikonya, seperti kerusuhan.
Gelombang pasang artis asing ke Indonesia terjadi pada tahun 1980-an, sama seperti promotor tahun 1970-an, kebanyakan promotor nasional musik panggung adalah mereka yang terdiri dari anak-anak muda yang termasuk kelas menengah atas. Luasnya jaringan yang mereka miliki membuka akses terhadap artis dan sponsor. Penggunaan sponsor dalam musik panggung yang mendatangkan artis asing semakin marak sejak tahun 1980-an. Hal itu disebabkan pertunjukan musik merupakan media yang efektif untuk beriklan. Alasannya adalah jumlah penonton dalam setiap pertunjukan, kelas sosial penonton yang bisa dilihat dari tingginya harga tiket yang dijual, dan anak muda sebagai konsumen yang potensial.
Keberhasilan pementasan musik panggung di Indonesia selama pertengahan tahun 1980-an tidak lepas dari perusahaan-perusahaan yang memproduksi barang-barang untuk konsumsi golongan muda. Sponsor terbesar dalam setiap pementasan musik di Indonesia adalah perusahaan rokok. Ketergantung pada sponsor dalam mementaskan artis asing disebabkan pembayaran artis menggunakan dollar Amerika, sehingga harga tiket menjadi tinggi dan sulit dijangkau oleh masyarakat menengah ke bawah. Manfaat sponsor adalah menyubsidi harga tiket yang harus ditanggung penonton. Harga tiket penonton tidak dapat menutupi biaya produksi.
Perkembangan industri musik panggung sejak pertengahan 1980-an telah berkembang dengan baik. Pada era tersebut sampai menjelang reformasi artis-artis asing kelas dunia telah dihadirkan oleh promotor Indonesia. Sejak era reformasi sampai tahun 2006-an dapat dikatakan industri musik panggung yang menampilkan artis asing sedang tiarap. Hal itu lebih karena alasan kondisi keamanan yang membuat artis asing berpikir duakali untuk mentas di Indonesia. Bukan faktor ekonomi, karena kelas menengah atas tetap memadati setiap pementasan. Semoga kehadiran artis asing dapat membangkitkan kembali industri musik panggung Indonesia. Akan tetapi, kita tentu akan lebih gembira bila promotor Indonesia menjadikan artis Indonesia sebagai artis asing di luar negeri.


by:
Muhammad Mulyadi
Peneliti Sejarah Industri Musik, dosen Jurusan Sejarah Unpad